Permanent Laser Hair Removal Brisbane

Laser Hair Removal is a becoming a popular treatment, as the current fashion for both men and women is to have the clean look consisting of little or no body hair. Excess or unwanted hair growth is usually a result of genetics, hormones or certain medications. Recent advances in the technology have meant that the hair removal treatments are now a lot more effective and there is less risk of side effects from occurring, making it safer for consumers.

When discussing Laser Hair Removal, it is important to note that the body has 3 cycles of hair growth – Anagen (active), Catogen (transitional) and Telogen (resting). The laser energy destroys hairs in the Anagen or active phase, targeting the cells at the base of the hair follicle which are responsible for hair growth. As Laser Hair Removal targets only the hairs in the active phase, only a percentage of hairs are treated with each session. A series of treatments is required to clear an area, though less hair will return with each treatment and the regrowth will become fine, soft and sparse.

Laser hair removal treatments target melanin which is the dark pigment contained within the hair. Red hair contains a different type of melanin and consequently the treatments can be less effective for redheads.
The area must be shaved prior to treatment to allow the laser energy to be directed under the skin, and not to heat up the surface by having dark hair above the skin level. Any plucking or waxing must be stopped for several weeks before starting treatment, as the hair needs to be in the follicle for it to work.

The effectiveness of the Laser Hair Removal treatments is mostly dependant on the quality of machine used, the parameters or correct setting and proper candidate selection. An ideal candidate for Laser Hair Removal has light coloured skin and dark coloured hair. This stark contrast of colour allows the laser light to easily target the hair and pose little or no risk of harm to the skin. This is also why it’s important to avoid sun exposure and tanning when undergoing a course of permanent hair removal treatments.

It is important for the full area to be treated by the laser with each hair removal appointment so hairs are not missed. Any missed patches will require additional treatments in the future and the area may look patchy or have uneven hair growth. Hairs that do not fall out or shed within about 14 days have usually not been treated effectively. This is due to poor spacing by the operator or incorrect technique, which can often be avoided by finding a reputable laser clinic that has licensed and experienced operators.

Looking to find out more about Laser Hair Removal Brisbane or Permanent Hair Removal Brisbane? Contact Image by Laser today to find out about our Laser Hair Removal Prices .

The Best Retaining Walls in Mackay

If you need retaining walls , be sure to use Mackay Fencing’s The Block Blokes. These retaining walls are sure to last you a long time. The soil it contains will not erode and it will not break down. It ensures that you have more control over the land that you build on, and ensures the safety of the people who live and go near it.

First of all, the company’s services are fast! You would not believe it. Other companies might take a long time to construct retaining walls, making a lot of noise and raising so much dust that you might not want to be near there, much less live there, while it is being built. The Block Blokes can build your retaining walls in a fraction of the time, letting you do more.

The construction materials are all made locally. There will be no extra costs because of shipping and transport because all of the things the company will use are available nearby. This reduces the cost substantially – shipping and transport can get really expensive depending on the weight, fragility, and other factors of the cargo.

Speaking of costs, Mackay Fencing will save you a lot compared to other companies. Not only will they save you so much time, they will save you half of the money – or more! You could spend the money you saved on other developments for your property – to make it look good, to give it more facilities and protection, et cetera. The type of retaining walls that Mackay Fencing’s The Block Blokes uses is the cantilever style, which uses a lot fewer materials than the gravity wall.

The people at Mackay Fencing care a lot for your aesthetic tastes. Your property deserves to look the best it can, after all. Mackay Fencing’s the Block Blokes have a variety of designs that you can choose from so that your new retaining walls will not look plain, drab, or God forbid, dirty. Among their designs is wood texture, if you want the walls to contain a garden; blocks, for that friendly, clean look; lined slate, for a no-nonsense secure impression, and more. You could have them leave it as a clean, flat, blank wall so that you could paint your artworks on it yourself if you so wished. Their walls look good and clean – only the best for their customers.

If you are worried about your retaining walls getting destroyed by nasty little creatures, then you have nothing to fear. Mackay Fencing can guarantee that your walls are fully protected against termites and pests. Rats and other vermin are going to crack their teeth on your new retaining walls if they try to gnaw on it. You won’t soon be seeing holes or cracks in your restraining walls if you use Mackay Fencing’s The Block Blokes.

In case you’re still in doubt of their abilities, look them up in the yellow pages. Mackay Fencing is the only one in the yellow pages listed as Master Builders. And they are. Their customers are completely satisfied with their work, and they have been working for sixteen years already – a sign of assured quality. Mackay Fencing follows no standard but their own, for they set the standard other fencing and retaining wall companies.

Mackay Fencing’s The Block Blokes are meant to withstand the test of time. The construction is very solid. The type of wall used is the cantilever style, which uses an anchor to the ground and not to the soil it retains, making it more reliably sturdy. It would take a very strong force to knock a hole in one of their retaining walls, and much more to destroy it. You could take a car and run into one of their retaining walls and the wall wouldn’t be damaged! Mackay Fencing’s The Block Blokes make more than just solid and sturdy retaining walls – they make walls that will last.

You won’t be able to find any other company whose retaining walls are like Mackay Fencing’s The Block Blokes – at least, not without giving out much more money and inconveniencing yourself with the noise and the construction dust and debris. There is no better company for your retaining walls than Mackay Fencing’s. Mackay Fencing’s The Block Blokes are unique. Visit http://www.mackayfencing.com.au/the-block-blokes-retaining-walls-mackay-and-qld-regions

Exterior House Cladding Toowoomba

Exterior House cladding in Toowoomba has never provided so many colours to choose from. Today, there are many rich colour options that will stand up to the damaging effects of our sun and provide a fantastic look for your home’s exterior. In fact, there has never been a fuller spectrum of vinyl wall cladding colours in Toowoomba, including darker options featuring bold, rich earth tones, cypress greens, sunflower yellow, mountain blues, and more.

Previously, lighter colours like whites, beiges, and linens were the most popular choices for wall cladding in Toowoomba. Not only are they strong against fading like darker colours, but they also provided a bright, clean, and warm home exterior.

While lighter colours still remain a popular choice today, darker shades are now starting to appear in newer, more modern homes. Darker cladding is being mixed with other materials, like brick or stone, to create a unique look. Blue and brown coloured vinyl cladding in particular is becoming an increasingly popular choice for vinyl cladding colours.

Listed below are the basic colour choices that are now available. Each of these colours is equally resistant to the effects of the sun and environment.

Heather – White – Linen – Beige – Sand – Sterling – Wicker – Soft Maple – Sahara Sand – Sage – Pebble Clay – Mountain Blue – Cypress – Sunflower

Looking for House Cladding Toowoomba? How about Exterior wall cladding Toowoomba? For Cladding Toowoomba, contact Prestige Exteriors today.

Why rent through a Property Manager?

Current Market Rental Value
We will advise you on the current state of the market and what rental you can realistically achieve for your property.

Tenant Selection
Tenants are shown through your property and have their references thoroughly checked to ensure only quality tenants will lease your property.

Residential Tenancies Documentation
We organise all relevant documentation and the security bond to be forwarded to the Residential Tenancies Tribunal.

Regular Inspections
On a regular basis a thorough inspection of the property is conducted and a Property Report compiled. This report is forwarded to you for your records.

Monthly Statements
Each month you will receive a statement showing details of rent received and any relevant expenditure. Any maintenance issues are approved by you prior to expenditure taking place. All funds are handled through an audited trust account.
We provide a seven days per week on call maintenance service for your Tenant.
We provide a printout of the full activities of your property for the financial year.
We provide a FREE newsletter to all Landlords

We Look After Your Responsibilities
Owners are responsible for everything inside the front door of their unit and for the balcony. You are responsible for ‘fair wear and tear’ under the Residential Tenancies Act 1994. Like any other asset, regular maintenance is required on an investment property. We can advise you of any repairs needed to maintain the capital value and rental return of your investment. A well-maintained property will also encourage good tenants.

It is a legal requirement that rented properties be ‘fit to live in’ and therefore any urgent repairs – such as any fault or failure of the electricity or water supply – must be carried out by a qualified tradesperson as soon as reasonably possible. A breach of your duty of care to provide safe premises may mean you are sued for negligence. For taxation purposes, repairs and maintenance can be included as a deduction.

For information regarding short term accommodation Brisbane or Brisbane self contained apartments property management contact us. We are specialists in accommodation Milton area.

External Building Products for Appearance and Insulation

Nowadays, there are a multitude of external building products that can be adopted to improve the overall appearance of any homes, offices, and any other buildings. In this article, there are three top products that are widely popular among all owner builders, homeowners, builders, engineers, or architects. These products include Styrofoam insulation, stone cladding, and vinyl wall cladding. They are selected because they can greatly add value to any houses or buildings.

1. Styrofoam Insulation
Styrofoam insulation is one of the most praised items for architects. This item can be adopted in any concrete forms. This product has several air pockets that can make it a perfect option as an insulator. Here are a few advantages of using styrofoam insulation.

Styrofoam is highly resistant against extremely high temperature. Because of that characteristic, this material is mostly used in roofs in order to defend any houses from high temperature. Styrofoam also has closed cell structure, so this material is resistant toward moisture or water vapors. This material is able to stop any fungi or mildew efficiently when it is used as the insulator. Many people love using the styrofoam insulation because it is very easy to handle. There are many options that are reachable for the styrofoam. This material can be added in a range of forms, including sheeted wall insulation, pipe insulation, ground flake insulation, and many other insulation forms.

The styrofoam insulation is mostly manufactured from the styrofoam sheets. The styrofoam insulation sheets are available in a range of different shapes. People are able to select the most ideal sheet based on their desires and wants. The insulation sheets are very easy to handle and cut on site. This material can act as the thermal insulation and vapor barrier. Therefore, people do not need any fiberglass or foils as the added protection layer.

2. Stone Cladding
Stone cladding is one kind of the outside cover for a building or house. This cover is very useful to boost the whole appearance of any houses or buildings. It is very effective to protect people from rainwater, snow, airborne toxins, and UV damage. Many people take on this product to improve the value of their homes.

Stone cladding usually uses a thin layer of stone in order to cover any substrates, such as steel or concrete. This material is generally preferred due to its durability, visual appeal, low maintenance, and the protective features. This cover works well during the summer season because it does not trap any heats from the environment. This stone cladding is widely available in a range of different colors, including beige, cream, golden, yellow, or charcoal. People can choose the best colors and designs based on the design or style of their houses.

Many experts believe that stone cladding is very sturdy. It can last for decades without having any maintenance procedures. Because of that reason, this product is an ideal option for people who do not want to deal with any advanced maintenance procedures in the future.

3. Vinyl Wall Cladding
This is a style of cladding made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) that is amalgamated with the other substances. Many people love having this vinyl wall cladding in their houses. It is usually used to heighten the value of any houses in order to be functional and aesthetically appealing.

Some people believe that a vinyl wall cladding is actually maintenance free. This product does not need repairs, touch ups, or repainting after they are installed properly in a house. This material is thought to be the most durable building products available on the market because it can last for decades after the installation. It is very eco-friendly because it is recyclable. This is one of the most economic cladding options that are available on the market. This product is also desirable because it is safe for human health. This product exposes less toxic compounds than any other exterior cladding materials.

Those are top three external building products that are highly common among our society. They are {chosenselected} because they have a lot of benefits for almost all homeowners. It is very important to choose the best products from a highly reputable company in order to avoid any concerns in the future. Compare all available options on the market in order to discover the best home building products.

Shrink Wrap Film – Retailers Love It

Manufacturers across the divide continue to produce quality products. We are all too familiar, with the attractive transparent packaging of toys, imported fruits, clothes, pens amongst other things. Unlike the previous times, customers can still have a glimpse into their prospective purchases, carefully examining them without necessarily compromising their state or quality (food).

It is as a result of these demands that the shrink film was developed. In the formative years; we were all accustomed to the brown paper bags which had our tree population on the decline. Subsequent move to the opaque store-name-christened polythene was a further disservice. Then came the perfect solution to all these problems, the shrink film.Initially, the shrink film was exclusively made from PVC (Polyvinylchloride).This is a plastic polymer (third most used plastic in the world) that had the capability of sealing products with a thin layer of plastic sheet. These sheets were often transparent to allow the customer have a view of the product.

The sheet would be wrapped over the product and passed over a heat tunnel or a heat gun. Normally, the length or circumference of the product would be measured, 10% of this value would be added then the sum is divided by two, this would give the size of PVC shrink wrapping to be used. PVC has the ability to shrink by 40% percent giving the packaging a tight grip of the product.

However, with time it was noticed that PVC could release small amounts of hydrogen chloride giving the products a characteristic smell in addition to poisoning. The sealers also would have small carbon deposits. The presence of a plasticizer in PVC had the drawback of hardening and shrinkage during cold weather and extreme stetching with subsequent temperature increases.

These drawbacks meant a suitable shrink film devoid of a plasticizer be developed. Polyolefin was found to have the packaging abilities of PVC but lacked the setbacks that faced the latter. It became a preferred choice of packaging. Offering a stronger seal and fewer odours. Its lack of plasticizer meant no physical changes to the shrink film. It would become the perfect storage solution; all weather .Lack of chlorine in its polymer meant no hydrogen chloride previously characteristic of PVC.

However, while its predecessor PVC enjoys machine compatibility and low cost purchases, polyolefin is the opposite, it remains relatively expensive and hard to use alongside machines.PVC on the other hand remains a suitable choice for manufacturers who don’t deal with edible products. Owing to its cheap price and machine compatibility it is a manufacturers darling.

It is of note that, both polymers are ideal for different packaging purposes. The choice of shrink film is determined by the product, budget and level of technology the producer in question has.

The undeniable fact is, packaging being the cornerstone of branding and advertising can be responsible for high sales volume or the reverse. Manufacturers and producers alike are today faced with the tough task of choosing the ideal packaging material. In the end the functionality of the shrink wrap can only be determined by the manufactures and producers.

Fine Food Wholesalers – A Comprehensive Wholesale Suppliers Resource and Inspiration Portal

When looking for innovative and exciting food products, you could literally scour the Yellow Pages or Google for hours or even days and still not find the information you’re after. What Fine Food Wholesalers offers is a huge and ever-growing directory of wholesale food suppliers who are keen to attract your business. Wonderfully, you don’t just get their contact details; you also get to access colourful images and a summary of the supplier’s business and product offerings.

Intuitive categories to browse

Being able to access at-a-glance information about suppliers is invaluable because it saves the time you would ordinarily have to spend searching, browsing, gathering information and bookmarking all your shortlisted results. On Fine Food Wholesalers, you can go directly to the category you need and turn up a number of suppliers who produce the wholesale foods you’re looking for.

Currently with 45 categories including Breakfast Food, Nuts, Cheese and Fruit & Vegetables, there is truly something for every type of food and beverage product. You’ll also find health-specific categories including Gluten Free, Health Food and Organic Food & Drinks as well as cuisine-specific categories such as Asian Food, International Cuisine and Australian Bush Tucker & Wild Foods.

Helpful for retailers, foodservice, food manufacturers and more

Fine Food Wholesalers is the go-to resource for many sectors of the food product-seeking community. It is of enormous value to the small café who is looking for home-style cookies and brownies, as well as the school tuckshop trying to find healthy options such as quality breads, wholesome snacks and sugar-free beverages for their hungry customers. Any kind of foodservice business, from the owner/operator fish and chip shop through to fine dining establishments will find an abundance of wholesale food choices.

Food manufacturers turn to Fine Food Wholesalers to connect with wholesale ingredients suppliers who offer staples such as flour, salt, olive oil and butter, right through to the more exotic products including saffron, truffles and hard-to-source seafood.

Food as a gift

This is a rapidly growing sector and gift hamper companies enjoy finding new and interesting wholesale food suppliers among the thousands of advertisers. It could be a new chocolate import, bush tucker destined for lucky overseas recipients or Christmas puddings and other treats.

Not only is Fine Food Wholesalers a comprehensive resource where businesses search for food suppliers but it is an inspirational portal that helps inform menu development and seasonal ranges and identify emerging food trends.

Craftstone – a Smart Way of Adding Value to Your Home

The practice of applying craftstone does not only increase the aesthetic value of an established but also proves to be a better choice in terms of durability. Other options like glass and wood are never as durable. Glass succumbs easily to the vagaries of nature while wood always runs the risk of falling prey to the attacks of termites. On the other hand, stacked stone veneers do not pose any such threats.

What is craftstone made of?
The craftstone is made of cement, iron oxide, and aggregates. These stone veneers look just like the natural ones. In fact, the good-quality stone veneers are hard to distinguish from the actual stacked stones even on close inspection.

The greatest advantage that the craftstone has over the natural stone is its weight. The veneer is incredibly lighter and easier to handle than its natural counterpart is. Hence, when you plan to install stacked stone veneer, you will not have to arrange for the reinforcements for holding its weight.

Consequently, it proves to be a very cost-effective choice and gives you a great opportunity to use it in different places.

Craftstone : Ideal for homes and commercial establishments
The fascinating appearance that the stacked stone veneers have made them suitable for every kind of establishment. With a variety of color options available on the market, it will be very easy to choose the one that suits your environment perfectly. Be it your home or a commercial setting, these veneers has the potential to create the perfect aura that you desire for your surroundings.

Additionally, stacked stone veneers are fully customizable. Profound variety in terms of size and pattern is available for you to experiment and get the best one that matches with your décor. You can create a rustic Stone Age look or a contemporary appearance with these marvelous stone veneers effortlessly.

Lend a special look with craftstone
You can enhance every corner of your home as well as your office with the stacked stone veneers. These veneers are suitable for the beautification of both the interiors as well as the exteriors.

Fireplace
Fireplace areas can be made attractive by using stacked stone veneers. By improving the appearance of the fireplace with stone veneers, you can make the interiors of your house look very interesting. As the craftstone lends 3D effect to any area, your fireplace will get a distinct personality.

Furthermore, you can add variations to the fireplace by selecting a mantel. A different colored stone or similar colored one can be used for this purpose.

Remember to choose colors of the veneers depending on the color of the surrounding walls. By creating a brilliant combination of light and dark shades, you can achieve an astounding effect.

Pillars or columns
Give your patio a sturdy look by using stacked stone veneers on pillars. The stone appearance of these veneers will make the columns blend beautifully with the outside environment.

Craftstone pillars are also a great garden accessory. For instance, if you place the pillars with veneers near the creepers, you can recreate the ambience of an outdoor museum.

You may also try the Greek garden look by choosing a light grey or an ivory color for your veneer pillars. In this way, you can experiment with a host of other garden themes.

Walls
Change the entire look of your establishment by using craftstone on the walls. Use them in your garden, and patio.

Infuse life in your garden by creating a contrast to the color of the pathways, flowers, and leaves. You can also have low-height boundaries around the flower beds or a small pool with waterfalls.

For your patio, use these stone veneers to avoid the monotony of colors that are generally created by other materials like bricks and tiles.

Since the stacked stone veneers imitate nature, you can enhance the look immensely by adding wooden or wrought iron furniture in the surroundings.

House facade
Make your house look like a country home by installing stacked stone veneers on the facade.

If you prefer a symmetrical appearance then choose a single colored veneer. However, you can give the façade a dynamic 3D appearance by creating combinations of different colors.

Irrespective of the type of the craftstone you choose, its application will increase the value of your home manifold.

Core Drilling Brisbane

DIY vs Hiring a Concrete Cutting Service – including a Step by Step Guide

There is a vast variety of concrete saws and equipment that can be hired to do that pesky DIY project that you have always wanted to get done. But when should you hire a professional and when should you just give it a crack? To do your concrete cutting or core drilling job properly and on budget you will need: the right equipment, the right type – wet or dry, the right protection for yourself and the environment, the right skills and the right value for money. There is lots to consider, but if you read on and follow this step by step guide we can explore this in a little more detail.

Step 1.Choose the right equipment: For gener slab cutting Brisbane you will need a Floor Saw or Kwik Cut Saw (Hand Saw). This process is used when reasonably level and flat surfaces have to be cut and includes cutting through reinforced concrete, precast concrete, and other structural materials.

These surfaces include floors, roofs, bridge decks and suspended slabs. The surfaces are usually cut to provide expansion joints, to make openings for ducts, elevators, stairwells, machine pads, trenching and for demolition purposes.

For wall sawing Brisbane you will need a Kwik Cut Saw (Hand Saw) or Ring Saw. This process is used for the cutting of openings in vertical surfaces and surfaces with slopes so great that floor saws cannot be used.

These surfaces are usually cut to provide for doors, windows, vaults, silos, chests, foundations, ducts or large diameter pipes, or to remove part or all of existing walls. For core drilling Brisbane through a floor or wall you will need a core drill. Core drills can usually drill holes from 25mm dia – 660mm dia. This process is used for the drilling of circular holes in reinforced concrete, precast concrete, asphalt, brick, cinderblock and other structural materials. Usually the holes are made for electrical, plumbing, heating, sewer and sprinkler installations. Other applications include holes to anchor bolts or lifting rods, to place explosive charges, to install load carrying devices, or for analysis of the structure of the rock.

Step 2. Wet or Dry cutting? I don’t mean to scare you here, but cutting concrete can be very messy. You can probably figure out that the dry cutting means cutting without water and should be less messy… hmm not so sure. Cutting without water means dust and lots of it. Very messy, minute particles of concrete will billow into a thick cloud of grey concrete dust or red brick dust and coat everything nearby you own. Personally I prefer the wet cutting machines. Even though the mess is wet grey or red slurry, it is much easier to clean up all the mess with a wetvac (wet and dry vacuum cleaner) and a wipe over with a damp cloth. Dust on the other hand can get absolutely everywhere.

Step 3. Protect yourself and the environment. Basic safety equipment you will need include goggles, ear plugs, safety boots/steel capped gumboots and gloves. If you have chosen a dry cutting machine you will also need to work with a dust mask on to protect your lungs, and sun protection and long sleeves if you are working outside.

Cutting concrete can be very noisy so be mindful of neighbors and nearby businesses in case of noise pollution and air pollution. Think about what is below you if you are cutting on a floor higher than ground floor. Sadly I have heard of some terrible injuries because of falling cores and no safety barriers. Protect the environment with plastic sheeting, extraction fans and a wet/dry vacuum cleaner. In many countries, letting waste such as concrete slurry go down the drain is against the law and you will be fined.

Step 4. Check if you have the right skills. There are many dangers associated with concrete cutting equipment. Even though this equipment can be readily hired, this equipment should only be operated by experienced personnel. You won’t need to google ‘saw injuries’ to imagine the dangers of operating such powerful equipment without the right know how and strength.

Step 5. Check out the cost. Believe it or not the cost to hire a skilled professional who has all the equipment needed and can get the job done with minimal fuss, is often not much more than hiring the equipment yourself. Aside from the safety risk, mistakes in concrete are expensive if you get it wrong. Before you go ahead with the hire, at least get an idea of price from a professional by obtaining a quote.

For example you may be surprised to know that at elliottandfyfe.com.au you can hire a Brisbane concrete cutting operator to do a basic job for about $150.00. That’s hardly more than the cost of hiring the concrete cutting equipment, and comes with a skilled operator to do the hard work. Might just be worth the call?

Shaun McCabe Elliott and Fyfe Concrete Cutting Service – Brisbane. For an obligation free quote on any job call 07 3806 9100 or 0411 554 737.

Varicose Veins in Women

Women are more susceptible to varicose veins because the valve leaflets become softer and the vein walls more distensile due to the cyclical influence of the female sex hormones, oestrogen and progesterone periodically throughout the menstrual cycle.[1] [2]

Pregnancy will commonly provoke the development of new varicose veins and also aggravate varicose veins that were present before pregnancy. As the pelvic pressure increases with the growth of the baby, the obstruction begins to cause back pressure on the veins in the lower limbs causing increasing congestion. The higher the number of pregnancies, the greater the risk is for the mother to develop varicose veins. Another factor leading to the increased risk of varicose veins is that the circulating blood volume in a woman as she approaches term increases by nearly 50%.

It is recommend that women consider treating there varicose veins prior to pregnancy as this will reduce the risk of their further development. [3]

However should you have varicose veins that develop during your pregnancy do not be too concerned as they may spontaneously regress within a few months following your delivery. Please do not hesitate to contact us a qualified sclerotherapist should you have any concerns during your pregnancy as an Ultrasound examination can provide an accurate baseline assessment if you do require treatment in the future.

Looking for help with Womens veins Brisbane, Pregnancy veins Brisbane or Sclerotherapy brisbane ? Contact The Leg Vein Doctor today.

1. McCausland, A.M., F. Holmes, and T. A.D., Venous distensibility during the Menstrual Cycle. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 1963(86): p. 640-645.
2. Barwin, B.N. and J.C. Roddie, Venous distensibility during pregancy determined during the menstrual cycle Am J Obstet Gynecol, 1976(125): p. 921-923.
3. van der Stricht, J. and C. van Oppens, Should Varices be Treated Before or After Pregancy Phebol, 1991(44): p. 321-326.

Styrofoam: History, Properties and Building Applications

Styrofoam is a brand name for Polystyrene Thermal Insulation material (sometimes referred to as “extruded polystyrene foam”). It is a trademark of Dow Chemical and among the most popular plastics in use today. Styrofoam is manufactured in blue sheet foam. It is mostly used in building materials and pipe insulation. It was invented in during World War II by Ray McIntire as he sought to create a flexible electrical insulator. It is usually supplied to manufacturers in form of small foam beads. It can be molded and processed to fit different purposes. The word Styrofoam is inappropriately used in Canada and the United States to refer to expanded polystyrene foam such as cushioning material in packaging, coolers, and disposable coffee cups. These are made of expanded polystyrene beads, and not from the extruded polystyrene normally used in Styrofoam insulation. There is also a different form of Styrofoam used in craft applications which is green and white in color.

The Properties of Styrofoam

Chemical Representation
Styrofoam’s chemical representation comprises of a hydrocarbon chain linked with a phenol group to every single carbon group. Styrofoam’s chemical equation has a (Ph) with a C6H5 ring.

Polystyrene
Polystyrene’s density is 1050kg/m3 as compared to water which has a density of 1000kg/m3. Although it is denser than water, polystyrene floats and doesn’t sink. It can break down when combined with a strong acid.

Polymer and Thermoplastic
A polymer is a Styrofoam molecule. It is an extensive chain of recurring atoms through the connection of many molecules (monomers) derived from petroleum. Styrofoam is also a thermoplastic as it hardens when cooled and softens when heated. As a liquid, it can be easily molded which makes it suitable for various applications in different industries.

Shock Absorber and Lightweight
Styrofoam is an excellent shock absorber and extremely lightweight. It is composed of approximately 90 percent air. This is why expanded polystyrene is very popular as a cushioning material. Styrofoam is easy to transport as its shock-absorbing features keep it well protected from harm.

Insulator
It is a superb insulator that limits thermal transfer. This major aspect makes it a top insulating material as it effectively maintains a comfortable temperature indoors, regardless of the weather conditions outdoors.

The Uses of Styrofoam in Buildings

Insulation
Styrofoam is used by many builders as an insulating material. It has a closed cell structure which ensures its insulation has a high R-value (a material’s ability to conduct heat). The more value a material has, the more resistance it has to conducting heat. When a building is properly insulated, heat is not transferred out of a building or into it which reduces drafts and decreases cooling and heating costs. Styrofoam is used to insulate basement walls, underground walls, and above ground walls as it significantly reduces energy loss. It is cut into sheets that are attached to a building’s frame or installed in its outer foundation walls. The foam is afterwards covered with certain material to create a specific look, such as marble, stone, or stucco. Styrofoam is also used in insulating floors and roofs. On roofs, it is cut and positioned to provide the proper drainage. Plywood or other materials are placed over Styrofoam after it has been laid on ceiling material. Afterwards, shingles can be installed on top. Styrofoam is used on floors as it is an excellent load-bearing material for different types of floors. Its closed cell structure makes it very rigid and highly resistant to compression in load-bearing applications. Styrofoam is also used in commercial and industrial piping applications. It is used in low-temperature systems to prevent surface condensation and to minimize heat gain. It retains its main insulating properties in environments with high-moisture conditions, high humidity and in low-temperature applications.

Waterproofing
Styrofoam’s insulation structure leaves virtually no vacant space between the cells which makes it waterproof and strong. It has a natural resistance to water vapor, snow, and rain and retains its primary physical integrity and insulation performance in exposed conditions for a long time. Since the material is resistant to water, mold and mildew cannot grow on its surface.

Hygiene
Styrofoam has a low susceptibility to rot hence fungal and mold growth and reduced. The boards are odorless, clean and unaffected by dust. This ensures that a structure’s integrity is maintained and the occupants stay in a hygienic environment.